How does the scientific method work?

Before reading science, we should know about the scientific method as well. So Now I shall discuss about the scientific method step by step.

The scientific working procedure is the process which the scientists use to solve a problem. With this procedure the subtle mathematical arguments, elaborate analysis, invention of machines, controlled observation, creation of theories etc. complicated actions are related. What is Science follow these steps as specialists. Side by side we also notice that a common man also follows the scientific working procedure.

The scientific method is a way to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments.

Now read step by step scientific method.

The steps of the scientific method are to:

Step-1: Ask a Question : When a scientist start research, they start by question. The scientific method starts when you ask a question about something that you observe: How, What, When, Who, Which, Why, or Where?

Step-2: Do Background Research : A scientist cannot make a decision without Research. They Research according to the rules of scientific method.

Background Research Plan is –

1. Finding Information – 2. Bibliography – 3. Research Paper

Step-3: Construct a Hypothesis : A hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work:

Every actions have their reactions.

So, “If you do this then it will happen.”

For Example: 1. Variables – 2. Variables for Beginners – 3. Hypothesis

Step-4: Hypothesis Test by Doing an Experiment: The experiment tests whether your hypothesis is true or false. It is important for your experiment to be a fair test. You conduct a fair test by making sure that you change only one factor at a time while keeping all other conditions the same. Every scientist repeats their experiments several times to make sure that the first results were right or wrong.

Experimental Procedure – Materials List – Conducting an Experiment

Step-5: Data analysis and Draw a Conclusion : Once your experiment is complete, you collect your measurements and analyze them to see if your hypothesis is true or false. Scientists often find that their hypothesis was false, and in such cases they will construct a new hypothesis starting the entire process of the scientific method over again. Even if they find that their hypothesis was true, they may want to test it again in a new way.

Data Analysis & Graphs – Conclusions

Step-6: Results : For completing project scientist communicate their results to others in a final report. For proving final report scientist follow this steps –

Final Report – Abstract Discussion – Display Board – Science Fair Judging

I hope every learners are clear about the scientific method. Now I want to show this process by an example:

Read this example to get more clear idea about the scientific method:

As for example, an innovative farmer may be called a scientist. In order to grow ‘Boro’ rice a farmer may face some problems. He can realize that all the problems cannot be solved at a time. He earmarks one problem and begins to work in order to solve it. His earmarked first problem is how to increase production. Identification of a problem before starting work is called fixation of problem. First of all two questions arise in the mind of the farmer-

– Does the yielding of paddy increase by applying chemical fertilizer ?
– Does the yielding increase if more fertilizer is used ?
In order to seek a solution of these problems, the farmer goes to visit an exhibition of an agricultural farm. There he finds that the application of fertilizer on the land increases the yielding of paddy. He comes to know more about this after talking with some experienced farmers. This way to procure information is called ‘collection of data’.

By analysing the collected data, the farmer learns :
– that production increases when chemical fertilizer is used.
– that production is more if much fertilizer is used.

Arriving at a decision by analysing the collected data is called hypothesis. The farmer plans an experiment in order to verify the truth of his hypothesis. First he selects three pieces of land of the same kind and same measurement. He makes them ready for cultivation in the same way. He sows paddy seeds in each piece of land at the same time. He reaps crops at the same time giving same nursing to three pieces of land.

After experiment he gets the following result :
By using one bag of fertilizer in the first piece of land, the farmer gets a great quantity of paddy.
By using half a bag of fertilizer he gets almost the same quantity of paddy.
In the third piece of land he did not use any fertilizer. He gets much less quantity of paddy.

From this experiment he realizes that-
Production increases with chemical fertilizer. So, his first hypothesis is correct. His hypothesis that more fertilizer gives more production is not correct. Fixed quantity of fertilizer should be used in a land of definite size. The experiment on the third piece of land without using fertilizer is called controlled experiment. Here the farmer cultivated the land without using fertilizer in order to compare the experimental results. He takes the final decision on the basis of the data received from his experiments. Thus he may take or reject or modify his hypothesis.

Thus, the enthusiastic farmer has followed a What is Science procedure. He now understands how much fertilizer is needed to grow ‘boro’ in a particular piece of land in a particular season. We may call this farmer a scientist. The farmer first identifies his problem and has arrived at a solution through a successful process. To arrive at a fixed decision a scientist has to identify a problem, make a hypothesis, perform the experiment, analyse the result. This special attitude and the system which the scientists follow and proceed in their way to discovery is called scientific working procedure.

I think all the learners are now clear about the scientific method.