Different types of cell division occur in all the types of the organism from unicellular to multi-cellular. Because of a kind of cell division, bodily size of organisms increases and in other type of cell division, reproductive cells are developed and in some other cases organisms multiplies through binary fission. In this chapter, you will know how the different types of cell division occur.
Every living body is a cell or cells. Life of every organism starts with a single cell. In fact, every cell is originated from a pre-existing one. The increase of cells in number through division is a very natural and important feature. The body of some organism is composed of a single cell. They are called unicellular organisms, such as bacteria, amoebas, plasmodium etc. These organisms multiply themselves from the division of a single cell. Other organisms are composed of more than one cell.
They are called multicellular organisms. Humans, Mango and Banyan trees etc. are composed of crores of cells. A giant Banyan tree also initiates its structure after the formation of a single cell (zygote by the union of two gametes). After the fertilization of an egg, the structure of a man is accomplish with the crores of cells dividing through the process of cell division. Again, male and female gametes are produced for the emergence of new generations. Cells divide through the process of cell division for the growth and reproduction of organisms
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Kinds of cell division:
Three types of cell division take place in living body, such as,
3. stages of mitosis five stages of mitosis and its significance
In this division, the nucleus of a cell divides directly into two parts. At the beginning of division, the nucleus elongates with two larger rounded ends and little narrower middle part. The middle part of the nucleus narrowing continuously once splits into two daughter nuclei. By this time cell wall of the cell pinching inward divides the cytoplasm of it into two parts and, ultimately, two daughter cells are produced. This type of cell division is found in bacteria, blue-green algae, yeast etc.
Through this process of cell division, an eukaryotic cell, stage by stage, divides into two identical daughter cells. In this process, nucleus and chromosomes are divided only once and two identical daughter cells are produced with the same type of chromosomes in number, physical and structural features as their mother cell contains.
Mitosis occurs in somatic cells and through this division, as the number of cells increases, the plants and animals grow in length and breadth. The process usually takes place in the body cells of animals and in the meristems of the plant parts growing, such as the tip of stems and roots, plumule and radicle, developing leaves, buds etc.
Stages of mitosis:
The cell division mitosis is a continuous process. During mitosis, karyokinesis is usually followed by cytokinesis. Karyokinesis and cytokinesis represent the division of nucleus and the division of cytoplasm respectively. Before the starting of the cell division, a cell has to prepare itself. This stage is called interpahse. For the ease of description, the process mitosis can be divided into five stages.